Friday, 21 January 2011

Exploring Horology: Quest for Instrument Watches

"Bro! That plastic watch is not suitable for your age lah! Sounds funny! What the hack man? Mechanical collector like you wants to collect this type of watches? Listen to me Inspector Gadget wanna be! This Casio toys just doesn’t suit you at all. Well, that is what an honest fellow collector advice me. Okiesss… I have my own reason to explore this Japanese plastic watchmaker. For me, the timekeeping display is just a façade. Behind it, the miniaturized computer is unsurpassed by any advanced mechanical timepieces. Anyway, my enthusiasm for mechanicals will never fade. Having electronics is not a betrayal." – thetick-thetick

Mechanical Watches as Personal Instrument
Like shoes, there are many type of shoes suit to usage and occasion. Being generic, shoes remain as shoes. Being niche; there are office shoes, jogging shoes, golf shoes, etc. Shoes are designed and manufactured for usage specific. To jog, to climb, to walk, etc. In horology perspective, a wrist watch is merely a timekeeper. It tells us time lapse by second, minute, hour, day, date, week, month, and year. It can also record time lapse (chronograph), countdown (like Regatta watches) timing, alarm triggering , show second time zone, or display the moon-graph or moon face in analogue fashion seamlessly with the timekeeping operation.

As precision engineering developed over decades, wrist watches have been developed from just a timekeeping device to become personal instrument. Among the earliest instrument watch we know of is the chronograph. Integrated with a slide rule along the dial, we can measure speed by time-lapse, distance over time, usage of fuel, GMT, World Time, second time zone, etc. These measurements are based on time lapse and differentials measured from the multi-hands operation. The simplest instrument watch that everyone knows is the diver watch - a timepiece integrated with time-lapse indexed revolving bezel. Still within timekeeping function, the watchmakers are challenged by the physics of the movements - to unleash other instrument functions beyond the mechanical boundaries.

The diver is a very basic mechanical instrument watch.

Mechanical Watch Limitations and Modern Instruments
Not all modern instruments are microprocessor driven. We still depend on mechanical instrument. If not fully, partially, the instrument needs to be integrated with electronic equipment. A quartz powered analogue watch still runs on mechanical parts to regulate the timekeeping. At the most sophisticated level, mechanical instrument watches have been designed and developed to display analogue compass, temperature (with thermometer), atmospheric pressure and depth (with Barometer Gauge). One thing for sure, you need to pay handsomely to own these sophisticated mechanical instrument watches.

Jaeger-LeCoultre diver’s watch with mechanical depth meter; I can’t afford but love to have this true mechanical masterpiece.

Casio Electronic Watches
Cheap brand, disposable Japanese gadget, inferior, teenagers' watch, and what else? We can hear many perceptions about this Japanese digital watchmaker. Their watches are relatively cheap compared to the mechanicals. Essentially, they can provide what the mechanicals can’t do! Electronic by virtue, the Casio watches provide many instrumentation features and functions at affordable price. I always keep one digital Casio with me. Cheap, basic one bought just for time synchronization with my mechanical watches. I didn’t bother much to explore Casio’s extensive models and features especially the quartz powered analogue timepieces.

The famous Casio G-Shock – radical, young looking timepieces. Picture taken from www.casio-intl.com.

The Quest for Instrument Watches
Mechanical GMT-World Time traveller’s watch, complete calendar, diver, pilot, and chronograph watches! What else I could rake from the market if not these timekeeping-centric instruments? Bored of mechanicals? Not me. But, yea… why not digital instrument? Excuse me fellow mechanical collectors. Don’t laugh ok! Discretely I study the Casio. Sincerely, I have to put my perception aside and admit that Casio is the world leader in producing advanced electronic watches. It answers what the modern world needs for personal instrument in the form of timepieces. Technology wise, they are second to none in advanced electronic watch manufacturing. Being different from other watchmakers, Casio is very focussed in its production whilst continuous adoption of advanced timekeeping and instrumentation technology. Depending on microprocessors and sensors, Casio have produced various digital instrument watches. They answer my quest for instrument watches. Hence, the price is affordable. These two factors are utmost important to me. Based on advice from some friendly Casio-craze fans, I manage to acquire a few models to start my collection.

My limited edition Military Spec. Mudman

The G-Shock
Among the many Casio watches; the G-Shock is the most sought after model by digital watch collectors. This radical designed plastic resin watch is famous of its tough and ruggedness. Besides being well constructed to withstand harsh environment; the G-Shock offers various instrument functions to suit usage purposes. From basic sports timer chronograph to the sensor triggered altimeter, G-Shock offers variety of colours, shaped, analogue, digital, and combo functions. The G-Shock signature model includes the Glide, Mudman, Gulfman, Riseman, Frogman, Wademan, and the latest aviation model – the digital-analogue Gravity Defier. All are battery powered and comes with various editions and specifications. Not like the mechanical watches, the movement behind the façade is called the module. Beside standard timekeeping and chronograph, every module operates various features and functions.

Skydiving? Mountain climbing? This Riseman equips you with Altimeter, Barometer, and Temperature sensor.

Seafarer’s gear – the Casio Gulfman calculates and indicates sea level seamlessly with moon face (tide and moon graph).

The Tough Solar and Intelligent Power Management
Compared to Citizen’s Eco-Drive, Orient Light-Powered, and the recently introduced Seiko Solar; the light powered Casio Tough Solar proposes a much better thermal and electrical energy management system. Using the same principle, the Casio watches with solar technology receive thermal and electrical energy that recharges the watch batteries through "solar panels" on the watch dial. The solar panel converts even weak illumination from fluorescent lighting into electric power. A rechargeable battery with a large power storage capacity supports stable operation of various functions with high electricity consumption. One thing I like about the Tough Solar is that I don’t need to worry about the battery running down because it's a solar battery. The Casio Tough Solar panel is noticeable by its purplish colour. Come in various shapes, the solar panel is fabricated as the watch display frame.

My Casio Pro Trek PRG-200 Tough Solar with six push buttons; big digital display with compass, temperature, altimeter and barometer. Comprehensive but doesn't come with tide and moon-graph.
The solar panel is also built as a sensor where it detects the absence of lights. Once the Power Saving (PS) mode switched-on; the watch display automatically turned-off when left static in the dark. The minute we press any button or start wearing the watch, the display will be automatically turned-on. I don’t need to explain about the Casio standard Electro-Luminescent (EL) feature. Once the PS is on, the EL will be disabled automatically when operated in bright daylight or in intense lighting condition. This is a true intelligent power management! Like mechanical watch power reserve analogue indicator, the Tough Solar comes with digital power indicator. Tough Solar, PS, and EL; I love them all.

“Hello my dear hubby. Why you want to keep these cheap looking watches? My wife asked me after observing the many G-Shocks in my possession. My simple answer to her – shocking revolution! The G-Shock shakes my savings. Better be rationalized about it.” – thetick-thetick

Wednesday, 19 January 2011

Review: Vintage Roamer Anfibio 1970s

"Roamer! I have seen many and I used to have a few. The last time I bought a Roamer watch was in the year 2003. As my Swiss collections developed, the spill-over victims are the Roamers. After sometime, only one fortunate Roamer survived in my collection. A severe damaged junk Anfibio! Don’t ask me why! Left in my spare box, I almost forgot about its movement and signatures. But recently I bought another Anfibio from an avid collector named Irhomdeys. Mistaken by ETA, this ordinary man’s brand is actually powered by an extraordinary movement- the almost forgotten Meyer & Stüdeli!" – thetick-thetick

Roamer of Switzerland
Roamer Watches was founded in 1888 by a master watchmaker named Fritz Meyer in Solthurn town in Switzerland. Headed by Meyer, the company early business is to manufacture cylinder escapements for the local ebouché manufacturers and watchmakers. In 1904, Meyer joined forces with fellow watchmaker Johann Stüdeli and started manufacturing their own movement to power their own Roamer timepieces. Roamer was a reputable Swiss brand before the WWI. In 1952 the company changed its name to Roamer Watches Co. SA. Today, the company still exists as an independent watch-making company. Among the famous signature models produced by the company is the patented watertight watch case called Anfibio. The Anfibio proved to be a commercial success to the company. It was first introduced to the market in 1955. Since its inception, Roamer has produced various Anfibio models until the last series marketed in the late 70s. Today, Anfibio survived as vintage and less likely known by watch traders and collectors of its history and horological differentiation.

My first 2011 vintage purchase. A sea blue basket woven dial Anfibio.

The Roamer In-House Movement
The Roamer has always been mistaken as ETA, A. Schild, or Ronda powered mechanical watches. May be because of these three big names are so dominant in the Swiss watch-making industry during Roamer’s renown era. Also, the brand is well perceived as equivalent to other ETA powered Swiss brands like Tissot, Oris, Titoni, and Camy. Hence, the Roamer Watch Co. stamped on the movement looks very much similar to other ETA, A. Schild, and Ronda powered mechanicals bearing the name of the watchmaker. The Roamer watches are actually powered by in-house movements developed by the owners - Meyer & Stüdeli (short-coded as MST). There are many MST variant used in Roamer watches. Be it manual or automatic, the MST is actually a very profound movement. The most sought-after movement is the MST500 series movement. The movement has been used in the Anfibio, Searock, and other Roamer signature models of the 70s. Continuing the legacy of the MST400 variant, the MST500 movement was introduced in the early 70s. The MST500 series is considered the last in-house mechanical line as the company forward-path is production into quartz in 1972. The MST calibers used in Roamer watches can be identified from the model number on the case back. Giving example from my newly acquired vintage Anfibio, the case back engraved with MOD. 521.1121.013 tells you that the watch is using the MST521 movement. The first 3 digits represent the MST movement variants.

Model number (MOD) indicates the MST movement used in Roamer timepieces.

Anfibio MOD. 521.1121.013
The Roamer Anfibio MOD. 521.1121.013 that I purchased recently is in pristine condition. My first purchase from Irhomdey’s blog! http://irhomdeys.blogspot.com/ Manufactured in two-piece construction; the cushion shaped stainless steel case and the timekeeping module can be disintegrated just by using the snap case opener. Powered by the MST521 caliber, this clean look sea blue basket-woven dial is a great hand-winding timepiece. What is so special about the MST521?

A two-piece construction! The disintegrated timekeeping module is well constructed for easy maintenance and assembly.

The stainless steel case is a brilliant design; precisely measured and fabricated to house the timekeeping module in watertight finish.

MST Caliber 521
The construction looks simple but the movement is somehow better than its mechanical rivals in the 70s. The MST521 in-house movement was manufactured in a complete yet basic feature to meet the demand for more power reserve and quick-set operation. Based on the MST520, the 521 variant is integrated with the calendar module. The original manufacturer movement specification summarized as the following:

Caliber: Meyer & Stüdeli 521 (MST521)
Jewels: 17 jewels
Diameter: 25.6mm
Height: 3.9mm
Frequency: 21,600bph (6bps)
Power Reserve: 56 hours
Shock Device: Incabloc
Operation: Manual Wind, 3 hands, Quickset Date, and Hacking function
Production Year: ca.1974

MST520 base movement. Simple yet upgradeable.

The variants from MST520 DNA:
• MST520: manual
• MST521: manual, date
• MST522: auto, date
• MST523: auto, day, date

Vintage Condition
Definitely it is not fare to compare with the original manufacturing specification for a 30+ year old vintage. The previous owners must have maintained the watch well. Upon receiving the watch, I just make a simple cleaning and polishing on the case and the acrylic crystal. Like the Omega, the original inner crystal is etched with a tiny Roamer logo in the center. The signed Roamer crown retains its originality. Surprisingly, the crown is still steady, not wobbling when operated for winding, quickset date, time setting, and hacking. Hacking! I love watches with hacking function. Easy to synchronize. I wonder how the original strap looks like. The watch lug proposes a stainless steel bracelet but I just strap with this white-stitched black calf leather to rejuvenate the entire look.

Timekeeping Performance
Not bad for a 30+ year old machine. The movement runs non-stop for almost 54 hours after fully hand-winded. Minus 2 hours from its maximum power reserve claimed in the production specification. It is normal for the mainspring to loose its elasticity after many years in operation. I am satisfied! Remain untouched, the uninspected movement is running at almost acceptable performance: +/- 25s per day in static face up position. On the wrist, the result satisfies the 6bps movement: +/- 10s per day. Not bad huh? Anyway, this machine will be overhauled and oiled soon.

A cleaned-polished Anfibio.


Picture from Irhomdey's blog. Noticeably, the hour hand lume was punctured.

“Roamer, a watchmaker brand often perceived and valued by vintage enthusiasts as comparable to Titoni, Enicar, Titus, Tissot, and the like is essentially an in-house powered timepiece. Like other Swiss OEMs, Roamer and the names Meyer and Stüdeli depleted seamlessly with the brand and less likely known by the market. The utmost important of a watch is its movement. Own an MST timepiece is a chance to experience horological differences. Honestly, having one in my Swiss collection is enough for me to preserve the genius work of Meyer and Stüdeli. Anyway, a good purchase. Thanks again Tuan Syed. Penjual vintage Roamer kat mana-mana blog bole la kasi up sikit harga tuuu... rare movement braderrrr.”– thetick-thetick

Monday, 17 January 2011

Review: Seiko SKZ325K1 “Stargate” Diver

"Bek. Kau tengok gambar ni? Seiko diver baru. That was a simple request that I received from a fellow collector sometime in November last year. Seeking my opinion, he sent me an MMS of a brand new Seiko diver’s photo. Looking at the image, I was not so impressed with the Z22 waved rubber strapped diver with radical design. That’s about all. But, after browsing through various websites, forums, and see the real thing; this newly dubbed Stargate lastly joined my 2011 collection on January 8th. A brand new watch for a brand new year! After exactly one week observing the behavior of this masculine diver, I decided to post my review in this blog. Sorry, quality of the photo is not so good. Enjoy reading." – thetick-thetick

The Seiko “Stargate” Scuba Diver 200m
Like the previous models, Seiko signature diver will be given a call sign like Tuna, Nemo, Monster, Sumo, Samurai, Dilot (Diver-Pilot), Starfish, etc. Only recently I found that this new diver was given a name Stargate. May be because of its bezel resembles the teleport portal used in the famous Stargate movie and TV series. Try goggling and you may find a few links of this new Asian edition submariner. The watch looks very masculine, sturdy, heavy, and projects a new luxury line of affordable Seiko.

Stargate – SKZ325K1 with Stainless Steel BraceletSpecification

Seiko Scuba Divers 200m
ISO Certified Divers watch
Antimagnetic Type I
Model Ref: SKZ325K1, with SS bracelet
Movement: 7S36 Automatic, 23jewels Made in Japan
Case No: 04P0 SS, SS case back
Scuba Bezel: Chrome-finished Black PVD Coated SS, Uni-directional Bezel, 120 clicks
Crystal: Domed Hardlex Crystal, 35mm diameter
Bracelet: SS Double Lock Clasp Buckle with wetsuit extension

Case Dimensions
Diameter: 44mm across, 48mm with crown
Lug to Lug: 50mm
Lug Width: 22mm

Stargate – SKZ323K White Dial w/SS Bezel and SKZ327K w/Z22 Rubber

The Case
The case looks quite similar to the famous Sumo. It looks heavy but curvy and recessed shape with polished and satin-brushed stainless steel finish. Not like the Sumo, the new Stargate is constructed with wider 22mm lugs. The pin holed case lugs ease dismantling of the solid stainless steel bracelet. A true Seiko DNA, the non-symmetrical case is a little bit out of shape at 3 to 5 o’clock position purposely designed to guard the watch crown. Beveled at every edge, the polished and satin-brushed case looks very immaculate at all angles.

The Scuba Bezel
The chrome-finished PVD coated stainless steel bezel unit looks luxurious. By the look you may think it is made of ceramic! The saw tooth bezel unit is integrated with a small trackball attached at 6 o’clock position on the case. This makes 120 clicks unidirectional bezel operation so smooth. The screw mounted pyramid shaped time-lapse marker on the bezel is so protruded. It is so noticeable if viewed from the case side. The 120 clicks enable the time-lapse marker to be set with the minute index on the dial precisely in every incremental. Adding to perfection, a thick shiny stainless steel ring borders between domed Hardlex crystal and bezel is perfectly fitted to support the operation.

The Crown
The big screw-down crown is proportionately sized and arranged to align with the crown guarded case. When pulled out at position 2, you can see quite a big screw-type pipe to hold the stem and the crown. Despite of its well-designed adjustment unit, I found that it is a little bit tight and coarse to screw down the crown.

The oversized bezel and time-elapse marker looks so protruded by the side. The curvy and recessed case can be strapped comfortably even on smaller wrist. The big crown is proportionately sized by the side.

The Dial, Hands, and Calendar
The simple day-date glossy finished black dial configuration looks astounding with the centre-wheeled 3 luminous hands. The big fat but lume-rich hour hand looks exactly like the Sumo. Same goes to the minute hand. But, in contrast the red painted minute hand looks a little bit imbalanced. Overall, the hands and the dial blend well with the blackness of the dial. Thanks to the big luminous hour marker and the minute marker insert indexing the outer dial. The symmetrical shield shaped 12 hour marker on the dial resembles the one on the famous 6159, 6105 and the new 300mm Marine Master. The black calendar disk with white print and frame looks a little bit miss-matched compared to the 11 steel-framed hour markers indexing the dial.

Glow in the dark. This picture says it all.

The Crystal
The thick domed Hardlex crystal rise perfectly between the bezel and the pyramid shaped time-lapse marker. Domed type crystal is well known of its visibility for underwater reading. But, it is so reflective to lighting. Hence, the glossy finished dial underneath degrades visibility when reading under bright sunlight.

Luxurious look masterpiece but glaring when reading in bright daylight.

The Bracelet
Heavy but I should rate the bracelet as an excellent production by Seiko so far for a diver in its class. The bracelet construction is solid and so comfortable to strap around the wrist. Adding to its supremacy, the end links are solid and constructed well to fit the lugs with very marginal gap.

The Clasp Buckle and Extension
The clasp buckle with extension is exactly the one used in other new diver series. One thing for sure, the extension link is so tightly locked on the folding clasp. You need a tool and energy to extend it for the first time!

Usual Suspect! Had a Seiko Monster? Same clasp buckle with extension link.

Timekeeping
As everyone knows, the 7S36 is an enhanced movement from the previous 21 jewels 7S26 robust movement. It has been fitted with additional 2 jewel cups to smoothly run one of the transmission wheels (pinion wheel) that make it 23 jewels for better accuracy. Not all mass assembled movement like the 7S36 are accurately tuned during production. But, mine is performing well with excellent accuracy. Maybe because of its anti-magnetic feature that makes the operation runs accurately despite gravitational effect and existence of magnetic fields around us.

My observation on the timekeeping summarized as the following:
• 7 days test
• 6 days straight wear on the wrist, average wear around 10 hours per day
• 1 day static at face-up position on the 7th day
• Day one to day six on wrist, total +4 seconds (less than +1 second per day)
• On 7th day static face-up position, +2 seconds (total +6 seconds in 7 days)
• Average +1 second a day

Note: The watch that I have tested is brand new with no severe drop, no blow or knock on the case. It was tested on regular wear basis using the quartz timekeeper to measure the accuracy.

Summary
The case: finest ergonomic design engineering by Seiko for its latest diver’s line.
The bracelet, buckle, and extension styling clasp: average in its class.
The crown: matched perfectly with the crown guarded case but the screw down pipe is coarse and rather stiff to operate.
Movement: mass produced, robust, reliable 7S36 caliber refined with anti-magnetic feature.
Legibility: the Seiko Lumibrite rich-filled hour marker and hands is so visible in the dark but the shiny domed crystal is so reflective when reading in bright daylight and intense indoor lighting.
Wearing comfort: two thumbs up!
Operation: large, saw tooth outer operating bezel clicks cleanly and securely into each incremental.
Design: luxury comfort and sturdy construction.
Overall (max. 10): honestly, I rate this Stargate 7 out of 10!

Take a closer look. Worth a collection?

Wednesday, 5 January 2011

Pendapat: Made in Germany, Miyota Japan dan Miyota Copy

"Ini jam Buzz Mechanic haa. Dia punya injen Made in China punya. Serupa itu Japan punya Miyota. Tapi dia punya grade bagus punyaa. Serupa itu Arbutus juga. Kalau kurang bagus punya haa... serupa itu Petaling Street punya jam. Kalau rosak kita tak repair. Kita hantar ejen. Itu lah apa yang sifu Ah Loy bagitau aku 3 tahun dulu masa aku mula-mula tanya pasal jam Buzz Mechanic Germany dan Arbutus New York kat Kedai Rainbow Watch Ampang Park... Sekarang Kedai Jam Y. K. Fong. Hmmhhhh...brand Germany pakai movement Made in China tapi serupa Miyota Jepun. Movement sama tapi qualiti kurang...pakai kat jam P.S. Boutique. Apa cerita nih? Aku buat siasatan...betul ke Made In Germany?" – thetick-thetick

Miyota Japan
Seperti saya poskan di artikel sebelum ini, Miyota adalah merupakan pengeluar movement jam tangan yang terbesar di dunia. Di ikuti oleh ETA Montres SA dan Ronda SA dari Switzerland. Miyota, syarikat bersekutu Citizen Watch Corporation dari Jepun adalah pemangkin kepada pengeluaran-pengeluaran jam tangan designer dan sukan seperti Adidas, Puma, Lacoste, Elle, BUM Equipment, DKNY, Emporio Armani, Kenneth Cole, Timberland, Police, dan pelbagai lagi jenama yang memenuhi ruang pameran di kedai-kedai jam. Bukan setakat itu, Casio turut menggunakan movement Miyota Quartz Analog yang diintegrasikan dengan teknologi sendiri untuk model Edifice. Chronoforce, jenama jam sport chronograph bergantung sepenuhnya dengan Miyota. Begitu juga, jenama dari U.S.A. seperti Invicta. Jenama dari Switzerland seperti Jaques Lemans turut menggunakan movement Miyota untuk siri Formula 1 nya. Jenama Solvil et Titus dan Titus turut menggunakan movement Miyota sepenuhnya untuk model keluaran sekitar Asia Timur. Jam Solvil et Titus dan Titus yang menggunakan movement ini adalah untuk pasaran lower dan upper-lower market dan boleh didapati di semua rangkaian kedai City Chain di Asia Tenggara.

Glashutte - Made in Germany
Negara Jerman adalah tempat asal di mana lahirnya teknologi pembuatan jam (horology) dunia seawal abad ke 18. Banyak nama-nama besar dikalangan bangsa Yahudi yang merintis ciptaan teknologi horology yang begitu mahir dibidang "precision engineering" – fizik dan mekanik. Perkembangan teknologi horology telah dimigrasikan oleh bangsa ini hingga membawa kepada wujudnya beberapa tempat di Eropah yang dikenali sebagai pusat-pusat pembuatan jam seperti di England U.K., Florence Itali, Moscow Russia, dan beberapa bandar di Switzerland seperti Geneva, Le Locle, Schaffhausen, Neuchatel, Bienne, dan Besel. Di sebalik penghijrahan dan pengusiran di zaman pemerintahan Nazi pimpinan Adolf Hitler, bandar Glashutte di negara Jerman masih bertahan sehingga hari ini dan meneruskan tradisi yang sudah beratus tahun lamanya sebagai pusat pembuatan jam elit di Jerman dan Eropah.

Jika jam elit Switzerland mengkesampingkan (associated) nama bandar tempat jam dikeluarkan bersama jenama mereka (brand association) seperti Patek Philippe Geneva, Rolex Geneva, Tissot Le Locle, IWC Schaffhausen, dan Zeno Watch Besel; satu-satunya elit dari Jerman datangnya dari bandar Glashutte. Hanya pengeluar-pengeluar dari bandar ini sahaja yang membuat dan mengeluarkan segala bahagian-bahagian jam sendiri – haute horlogerie mengikut istilah horology. Ada empat jenama dari Glashutte yang terkenal di dunia – A. Lange & Sohne, Muhle Glashutte, Union Glashutte dan Original Glashutte. Standard pengeluaran jam-jam jenama ini adalah setanding dan mungkin lebih bagus dari jenama dari Switzerland.

Sinn, jenama Jerman yang turut menempa nama di persada pembuatan jam-jam moden tidak kurang hebatnya. Ia berpengkalan di Frankfurt. Begitu juga Limes, Shaumberg, Junkers, Zeppelin, Trias, Aeromatics, dan beberapa jenama pengeluar dari Jerman yang lain.

Sinn, Made in Germany bergantung sepenuhnya pada movement ETA dan Lemania 

Made in Germany – Miyota Movement?
Tidak seperti pengeluar Switzerland. SWISS MADE dan SWISS MOVT adalah dua tanda keluaran (production marking) yang berbeza. Segalanya dikeluarkan di Switzerland ditanda sebagai SWISS MADE. Manakala SWISS MOVT adalah keluaran yang menggunakan movement dari Switzerland tetapi dikeluarkan di negara lain. Pengeluar-pengeluar dari Glashutte mengkesampingkan perkataan Glashutte dan MADE IN GERMANY pada setiap model keluaran mereka. Jenama dari negara Jerman lain kebanyakannya menggunakan movement ETA, Ronda, Poljot, Miyota, dan yang terbaru menggunakan movement "Miyota Copy" yang dibuat di negara China. Namun, jenama-jenama ini turut menggunakan brand tanda keluaran MADE IN GERMANY!!! Ada pula menggunakan tanda keluaran GERMAN QUALITY pada rotor plate atau penutup jam.

Ini kita boleh dapati pada jam mekanikal jenama Trias, Aeromatics, Junkers, Zeppelin, dan beberapa model lagi. Namun bukan semua model dari jenama-jenama tersebut menggunakan movement Miyota Copy sepenuhnya yang diperbuat di negara China. Mungkin hanya pada model untuk pasaran lower dan lower-middle market. Harga retail yang ditawarkan biasanya antara RM600 hingga ke RM800. Kebanyakan model yang mahal (middle to upper market – RM1,000 ke atas) dari jenama-jenama ini menggunakan movement mekanikal dan quartz dari ETA, Ronda dan Miyota Japan.

Trias, menggunakan movement Unitas 6497 yang asal

Made in Germany – Miyota Copy Made in China
Negara China mempunyai jenama tempatan yang tidak berapa diketahui dunia. SWI (Shanghai Watch International) yang berpusat di Shanghai adalah jenama yang telah wujud lebih satu abad yang lalu. Jam-jam mekanikal keluaran SWI hanya untuk pasaran tempatan dan antara pengguna jenama ini yang terkenal adalah Chairman Mao Tze Tung yang merevolusikan pemerintahan komunis di negara China. Ini membuktikan bahawa negara China sudah lama mempelopori teknologi horologi. Pengaruh ini datang dari negara jiran yang berfahaman komunis pada era awal 1900 – USSR/Rusia era Soviet Union. Kini, negara China sebagai sebuah kuasa ekonomi dunia sudah maju dan mampu membuat apa sahaja teknologi yang dipelopori oleh negara barat termasuk pembuatan jam seperti SWI, Shanghai, Peking, dan Seagull. Tidak terkecuali, "teknologi ciplak" yang mirip pada pembuatan movement mekanikal asal seperti ETA dan Miyota.

Trias, model "Paragon" yang menggunakan movement Miyota Copy berkualiti tinggi dari negara China

Memandangkan kos pembuatan movement-movement jam tangan mekanikal dari negara China agak murah, banyak pengeluar-pengeluar jam tangan dari serata dunia menggunakan movement yang mirip kepada ETA dan Miyota. Movement-movement ini mempunyai kualiti yang bagus berbanding movement yang digunakan untuk jam-jam tiruan. Apa yang pasti assembly unit movement in kemas, setiap jewel cap diisi minyak (oiling), lebih kukuh, regulator yang efficient, dan berfungsi baik. Jika dilihat dari mata kasar, tidak banyak beza dengan movement yang ada pada jenama tiruan. Movement mekanikal ini mirip Miyota/Citizen 6200/6206, Miyota 8215, ETA 2836 variant, ETA 2824 variant, ETA 2892 variant, Unitas 6497/6498, Poljot 31xx, Lemania 5100, dan Valjoux variant.

Arbutus New York. Menggunakan Miyota Copy grade yang sama pada Trias model murah.

Kesimpulan
Konsep “production outsourcing dan overseas operation” yang diterimapakai oleh pengeluar-pengeluar jam tangan dunia ketika ini membolehkan pengeluar menurunkan kos pengeluaran. Banyak jenama-jenama “watchmaker” yang mempraktikkan konsep pengeluaran ini. Casio, Seiko, dan Citizen adalah antara jenama Jepun yang sudah lama mengeluarkan jam-jam tangan mereka di negara luar seperti Malaysia, Singapura, Thailand, China dan India. ETA Switzerland juga pernah membuat "ebouches assembly" di Malaysia dan Thailand. Begitu juga Miyota dan Ronda. Bagi pengeluar-pengeluar jam tangan, ini memberi kelebihan dari segi "market positioning". Mereka boleh menawarkan pelbagai model mengikut kemampuan pasaran. Sebagai contoh, Seiko model elit yang berharga tinggi hanya dibuat sepenuhnya di Jepun. Model pertengahan kebanyakkannya di assemble di China, Malaysia, Singapura dan di beberapa negara di Eropah dan Amerika Latin. Untuk peminat dan pembeli, ia memberi peluang untuk memiliki sesebuah jam tangan mengikut model dan harga yang ditawarkan. Semuanya mengikut acuan dan kualiti pihak pengeluar mengikut model dan harga tawaran. Cuma yang paling berbeza dari segi kos dan kualiti adalah jam tiruan.

Casio Edifice, jam tiruan namun menggunakan movement Miyota OS10 yang asli

“Laa... apa ke he nya diorang nak bikin jam replika Trias yeop? Mana ada. Buang tebiat ke. Bikin la replika Rolex, Patek Philippe, Oris ke... baru boleh jual. Tapi yeop, jam Casio Edifice banyak replika. Sama. Hmhhh... padan muka Casio. Sapa suruh bukak kilang kat negara China. Kan dah kena ciplak... lumrah pasaran. Ada demand, ada la supply. Tepuk poket, tanya la selera. Minat masing-masing.” – thetick-thetick.